Tribute goods in Mexico were most usually lengths of cotton cloth, woven by women, and maize and other foodstuffs produced by men. Practice: Labor, slavery, and caste in the Spanish colonial system. Virtually all expeditions after the Columbus voyages, which were funded by the crown of Castile, were done at the expense of the leader of the expedition and its participants.  In Mexico, the labor force had to be lured from elsewhere in the colony, and was not based on traditional systems of rotary labor. The structure of the hierarchy was in many ways parallel to that of civil governance. The Spanish Colonial era in Texas began with a system of missions and presidios, designed to spread Christianity and to establish control over the region. In the colonial era, Spain initiated the Encomienda System, under which thousands of people and families were entrusted to colonial officials. Important indigenous crops that transformed Europe were the potato and maize, which produced abundant crops that led to the expansion of populations in Europe. The New Spanish Colonial Period (1521-1821) The Philippine Islands first came to the attention of Europeans when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed there in 1521, claiming the lands for Spain.  In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. Many institutions established in Castile found expression in The Indies from the early colonial period. The conquistadors originally organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru. The film starred Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, and Liam Neeson and It won an Academy Award. 87-88. Each order set up networks of parishes in the various regions (provinces), sited in existing indigenous settlements, where Christian churches were built and where evangelization of the indigenous was based. as Spaniards expanded their control over territories and their indigenous populations. In southern Central and South America, settlements were founded in Panama (1519); León, Nicaragua (1524); Cartagena (1532); Piura (1532); Quito (1534); Trujillo (1535); Cali (1537) Bogotá (1538); Quito (1534); Cuzco 1534); Lima (1535); Tunja, (1539); Huamanga 1539; Arequipa (1540); Santiago de Chile (1544) and Concepción, Chile (1550).  They were in charge of distributing land to the neighbors, establishing local taxes, dealing with the public order, inspecting jails and hospitals, preserving the roads and public works such as irrigation ditchs and bridges, supervising the public health, regulating the festive activities, monitoring market prices, or the protection of Indians. In Mexico during the sixteenth-century Chichimec War guarded the transit of silver from the mines of Zacatecas to Mexico City. Spaniards continued to expand their presence in the circum-Caribbean region with expeditions.  For the conquest era, two names of Spaniards are generally known because they led the conquests of high indigenous civilizations, Hernán Cortés, leader of the expedition that conquered the Aztecs of Central Mexico, and Francisco Pizarro, leader of the conquest of the Inca in Peru.  The story of Doña Marina, also known as Malinche, was the subject of a Mexican TV miniseries in 2018. The other was the presence or absence of an exploitable resource for the enrichment of settlers. â¢The friars taught them about Christianity, the language and customs of Spain, and Spanish farming methods. American colonial architecture includes several building design styles associated with the colonial period of the United States, including First Period English (late-medieval), French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, Dutch Colonial, and Georgian. The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. 5, pp. , The first mainland explorations by Spaniards were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. As the colonial economy became more diversified and less dependent on these mechanisms for the accumulation of wealth, the indigenous noblemen became less important for the economy. Five hundred Spaniards did not topple the Aztec Empire alone. 4. , In 1721, at the beginning of the Bourbon monarchy, the crown transferred the main responsibility for governing the overseas empire from the Council of the Indies to the Ministry of the Navy and the Indies, which were subsequently divided into two separate ministries in 1754. 0. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Warren, J. Benedict. $25.00 shipping. "The Bourbon Reforms" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_American_History_and_Culture1996 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBedini1992 (, Cook, Noble David. Ultimately, the kingdom became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada first in 1717 and permanently in 1739. Potosí (founded 1545) was in the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that labor could be mobilized on traditional patterns to extract the ore. An important element for productive mining was mercury for processing high-grade ore. Peru had a source in Huancavelica (founded 1572), while Mexico had to rely on mercury imported from Spain. 142-43. Other notable historical figures in the production are Malinche, Cortés cultural translator, and other conquerors Pedro de Alvarado, Cristóbal de Olid, Bernal Díaz del Castillo. The Spaniards ruled the Philippines for 300 years under these conditions, continually harassed by Chinese pirates, by the Moros (Mohammedans from Mindanao and Sulu), by the Dutch and the English who wanted to take possession of the Islands, and finally by the frequent revolts on the part of the natives. The exchange did not go one way. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. , The spectacular conquests of central Mexico (1519-21) and Peru (1532) sparked Spaniards' hopes of finding yet another high civilization. The Mixtecs of colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui history, sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. It consisted of a number of opposing views about the way natives were to be integrated into colonial life, their conversion to Christianity and their rights and obligations. The reorganization of administration has been called "a revolution in government. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción, now the capital of Paraguay. Crown approval through the Council of the Indies was needed for the establishment of bishoprics, building of churches, appointment of all clerics.  The crown expelled the Jesuits from Spain and The Indies in 1767 during the Bourbon Reforms. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. "La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in. Pope Alexander VI in a 4 May 1493 papal decree, Inter caetera, divided rights to lands in the Western Hemisphere between Spain and Portugal on the proviso that they spread Christianity. This guide covers all colonial possessions in the Americas, so although there is an emphasis on the British Colonies, it also includes material about French and Spanish possessions. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. For all practical purposes, this was slavery.  Ecclesiastics also functioned as administrators overseas in the early Caribbean period, particularly Frey Nicolás de Ovando, who was sent to investigate the administration of Francisco de Bobadilla, the governor appointed to succeed Christopher Columbus. Francisco de Ibarra led an expedition from Zacatecas in northern New Spain, and founded Durango. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of four survivors of that expedition, writing an account of it. After the 1550s, the crown increasingly favored the diocesan clergy over the religious orders. Archbishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, Isabella's confessor, was tasked with reining in Columbus's independence. In Peru, Spaniards founded the city of Lima as their capital and its nearby port of Callao, rather than the high-altitude site of Cuzco, the center of Inca rule. Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. In Mexico, refining took place in haciendas de minas, where silver ore was refined into pure silver by amalgamation with mercury in what was known as the patio process. The flag which flies over Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas is described in heraldry as a red saltire raguly on a white field. Melville, Elinor G.K. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. Farming gave Native Americans a dependable source of food. 1 South Castillo Drive Eventually, the army also began to fly this flag, and it came to represent Spain. The Spaniards and Portuguese inhabit the Iberian peninsula, which forms the southwest portion of Europe. Although today Buenos Aires at the mouth of Rio de la Plata is a major metropolis, it held no interest for Spaniards and the 1535-36 settlement failed and was abandoned by 1541. Corregidores collected the tribute from indigenous communities and regulated forced indigenous labor. 5, p. 253. Their central official and ceremonial area was built on top of Aztec palaces and temples. , The Columbian Exchange was as significant as the clash of civilizations. A key to this was the cooperation between most indigenous elites with the new ruling structure. The Colonial Era. Warren, J. The New Laws of 1542 were the result, limiting the power of encomenderos, the private holders of grants to indigenous labor previously held in perpetuity. The main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction and the spread of Catholicism through indigenous conversions. $115.00. Ore was crushed with the aid of mules and then mercury could be applied to draw out the pure silver. He strongly influenced the formulation of colonial policy under the Catholic Monarchs, and was instrumental in establishing the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) (1503), which enabled crown control over trade and immigration. With the conquests of the Aztec and Inca empires, large numbers of Spaniards emigrated from the Iberian peninsula to seek their fortune or to pursue better economic conditions for themselves.  This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.. He became deeply indebted to the German Welser and Fugger banking families. On October 12, 1492, Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus made landfall in the Western Hemisphere.. Spanish possession and rule of its remaining colonies in the Americas ended in that year with its sovereignty transferred to the United States. The dearth of Spanish women at the start of the Colonial era led to numerous unions between Indian women and Spaniards. He then founded the settlement of Isabela on the island they named Hispaniola (now divided into Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Inquisitional powers were initially vested in bishops, who could root out idolatry and heresy.  These formal arrangements between Spain and Portugal and the pope were ignored by other European powers. Since the flags of Ireland and Scotland (and the flag of Great Britain incorporating the cross of Scotland) are also St. Andrew's crosses, when speaking of the Spanish flag, this design is best called the Burgundian Cross, or the Cross of Burgundy. The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. A number of friars in the early period came to the vigorous defense of the indigenous populations, who were new converts to Christianity. The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. Once on the mainland, where there were dense indigenous populations in urban settlements, the Spanish could build a Spanish settlement on the same site, dating its foundation to when that occurred. For Spaniards, the fierce Chichimecas barred them for exploiting mining resources in northern Mexico. The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, British America, and some small regions in South America and the Caribbean. Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas, in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569.  Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. Author(s): Kendall, David Joseph | Advisor(s): Budasz, Rogerio | Abstract: Spanish colonial music, both sacred and secular, enjoyed a long and widespread performance tradition in the Philippines from 1565 to 1898, but this has largely been forgotten or obscured in scholarship of the last hundred years. Instituto Bibliográfico Mexicano 1961, Gibson, Charles. The profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile. During the Bourbon Reforms in the mid-eighteenth century, the crown systematically sought to centralize power in its own hands and diminish that of its overseas possessions, appointing peninsular-born Spaniards to Audiencias. There were also sub-treasuries at important ports and mining districts. The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565-1898).. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus vast powers of governance over this unknown part of the world. A well-connected settler in Cuba, Hernán Cortés received authorization in 1519 by the governor of Cuba to form an expedition of exploration-only to this far western region. The Viceroyalty of Perú was established in 1542. The population of the Native American population in Mexico declined by an estimated 90% (reduced to 1–2.5 million people) by the early 17th century. $100.00. De Austrias a Borbones", Encyclopedia of Latin and mexicpo is the best History and Culture 1996, Historiography of Colonial Spanish America, Indigenous Reducciones and Spanish Resettlement: Placing Colonial and European History in Dialogue, Indigenous Puerto Rico DNA evidence upsets established history, “The Political Force of Images,” Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520–1820, Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spanish_colonization_of_the_Americas&oldid=991351941, Spanish exploration in the Age of Discovery, History of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. During the Bourbon era, even when the crown systematically appointed peninsular-born Spaniards to royal posts rather than American-born, the cabildos remained in the hands of local elites. Though he was not the first explorer to set foot there, nor did he ever come to understand the dimensions of his discovery, it was Christopher Columbus who first published an account of his findings. On the death, unauthorized absence, retirement or removal of a governor, the treasury officials would jointly govern the province until a new governor appointed by the king could take up his duties. Large deposits were found in a single mountain in the viceroyalty of Peru, the Cerro Rico, in what is now Bolivia, and in several places outside of the dense indigenous zone of settlement in northern Mexico, Zacatecas and Guanajuato. This guide covers all colonial possessions in the Americas, so although there is an emphasis on the British Colonies, it also includes material about French and Spanish possessions. The diocese was in turn divided into smaller units, the parish, staffed by a parish priest. In an effort to solidify their control over North American resources and territory, European colonial powers began to construct fortifications to protect their … Comparing European and Native American cultures. Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculpture.  Expeditions required authorization by the crown, which laid out the terms of such expedition. The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. Western Venezuela’s history took an atypical direction in 1528, when Spain’s first Hapsburg monarch, Charles I granted rights to colonize to the German banking family of the Welsers. There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. During the pre-colonial period, it was the dominant pattern of organization of the indigenous communities. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. Identify the main Spanish American colonial settlements of the 1500s and 1600s Discuss economic, political, and demographic similarities and differences between the Spanish colonies During the 1500s, Spain expanded its colonial empire to the Philippines in the Far East and to areas in the Americas that later became the United States. Las Casas was officially appointed Protector of the Indians and spent his life arguing forcefully on their behalf. The salary of officials during the Habsburg era were paltry, but the corregidor or alcalde mayor in densely populated areas of indigenous settlement with a valuable product could use his office for personal enrichment. Bolivia's Colonial Era 1500-1800 A.D. Bolivia's history changed dramatically when in 1532 the Spanish defeated the great Incas, and other ethnic groups that had historically inhabited the area. The Jesuits resisted crown control, refusing to pay the tithe on their estates that supported the ecclesiastical hierarchy and came into conflict with bishops. The Spanish colonial strategy was to undermine the native oral tradition by substituting for it the story of the Passion of Christ (Lumbera, p. 14). There were a variable number of councilors (regidores), depending on the size of the town, also two municipal judges (alcaldes menores), who were judges of first instance, and also other officials as police chief, inspector of supplies, court clerk, and a public herald. Perhaps the greatest empire that the world has ever known, the Spanish Empire controlled, influenced, or claimed nearly half of the world in the 16th-18th centuries. That expedition was to make world history. During Christopher Columbus's third voyage, when Europeans first set sight on the coast of Venezuela, there was nothing that drew the special attention of the Spanish. Viceroys served as the vice-patron of the Catholic Church, including the Inquisition, established in the seats of the viceroyalties (Mexico City and Lima). $100.00. , As the empire expanded into areas of less dense indigenous populations, the crown created a chain of presidios, military forts or garrisons, that provided Spanish settlers protection from Indian attacks. As was the case in peninsular Spain, Africans (negros) were able buy their freedom (horro), so that in most of the empire free Blacks and Mulatto (Black + Spanish) populations outnumbered slave populations. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. There are many such works for Mexico, often drawing on native-language documentation in Nahuatl, Mixtec, and Yucatec Maya. "Social climbers: Changing patterns of mobility among the Indians of colonial Peru."   This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era. The early Caribbean proved a massive disappointment for Spaniards, who had hoped to find mineral wealth and exploitable indigenous populations. Pre Colonial and Spanish era. Other imports were figs, apricots, cherries, pears, and peaches among others. 5, p. 453. Authored by Spanish Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua and Domingo Abella, the … Spanish Colonial Period of time when the Spanish built settlements in Texas which included missions, towns, presidios, and ranches 1718 Mission San Antonio de Valero was established as a supply point between the Rio Grande and East Texas There were few permanent settlements, but Spaniards settled the coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit the pearl beds. The last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. - It is a ritual based on a legend about a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and offered her hand in marriage in anyone who can retrieve it. During the Spanish Colonial Period of the Philippines most of the archipelago underwent a … Until his dying day, Columbus was convinced that he had reached Asia, the Indies. Era in Texas History characterized by the building of missions to confirm Spanish land claims. Spanish Texas (Tejas) was a colonial province within the northeastern mainland region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. 1875.  A similar legal apparatus was set up in Lima.. In Medieval times, however, they had experienced a history quite different from that of other southern Europeans. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. They replicated the existing indigenous network of settlements, but added a port city. , For the conquest of Mexico, a 2019 an eight-episode Mexican TV miniseries Hernán depicts the conquest of Mexico. , The conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires ended their sovereignty over their respective territorial expanses, replaced by the Spanish Empire.  Their functions were governing the respective municipalities, administering of justice and being appellate judges in the alcaldes menores' judgments, but only the corregidor could preside over the cabildo. Disease and overwork, disruption of family life and the agricultural cycle (which caused severe food shortages to Spaniards dependent on them) rapidly decimated the indigenous population. Spanish explorations of other islands in the Caribbean and what turned out to be the mainland of South and Central America occupied them for over two decades. 25. â¢ The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries. The largest population in Spanish America was and remained indigenous, what Spaniards called "Indians" (indios), a category that did not exist before the arrival of the Europeans. The empire was a fragile confederation of city-states. The search for material wealth, the enhancement of the conquerors' and the crown's position, and the expansion of Christianity. Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. The end of the Habsburg dynasty in 1700 saw major administrative reforms in the eighteenth century under the Bourbon monarchy, starting with the first Spanish Bourbon monarch, Philip V (r. 1700-1746) and reaching its apogee under Charles III (r. 1759-1788). In the twentieth century, there have been a number of films depicting the life of Christopher Columbus. The Audiencias were initially constituted by the crown as a key administrative institution with royal authority and loyalty to the crown as opposed to conquerors and first settlers. Although the language was never compulsory while under Spanish colonial rule, Spanish was at one time spoken â¦  The capitals of Mexico and Peru, Mexico City and Lima came to have large concentrations of Spanish settlers and became the hubs of royal and ecclesiastical administration, large commercial enterprises and skilled artisans, and centers of culture. Spanish universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats (letrados) for administrative positions in Spain and its overseas empire. Best was gold, but silver was found in abundance. Residences of the officials and elites were closest to the main square. Lockhart, James. , After the end of the period of conquests, it was necessary to manage extensive and different territories with a strong bureaucracy. Cook, Noble David. They were predominantly criollos (Americas-born people of European ancestry, mostly Spanish or Portuguese), bourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in some cases with military training in the mother country. The Spanish colonial era. Patterns set in this early period of exploration and colonization were to endure as Spain expanded further, even as the region became less important in the overseas empire after the conquests of Mexico and Peru..  Although constituted as the highest judicial authority in their territorial jurisdiction, they also had executive and legislative authority, and served as the executive on an interim basis. , The Valladolid debate (1550–1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile and spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors. barangay system during the pre-spanish era Before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors in the Philippines in the 16 th century, Barangay is used to be their form of government. The loss of indigenous population had a direct impact on Spaniards as well, since increasingly they saw those populations as a source of their own wealth, disappearing before their eyes.. Treasury officials were generally paid out of the income from the province and were normally prohibited from engaging in personal income-producing activities. "California Indian Characteristics". Ecuador Table of Contents. $25.00 shipping. The United States took occupation of Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. The Spanish took advantage of a recent civil war between the factions of the two brothers Emperor Atahualpa and Huáscar, and the enmity of indigenous nations the Incas had subjugated, such as the Huancas, Chachapoyas, and Cañaris. INTRODUCTION Long before the arrival of the Spaniards, ancient Filipinos were living in scattered barangays and ruled by different chieftains. Important ones include Santiago de Guatemala (1524); Puebla (1531); Querétaro (ca. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society.  He is a controversial figure in the current era, with an equestrian statue commemorating him removed from public display in 2020.. From that misperception the Spanish called the indigenous peoples of the Americas, "Indians" (indios), lumping a multiplicity of civilizations, groups, and individuals into a single category of The Other. , As the basic political entity it was the governorate, or province. During most of the Spanish colonial period, the … Prominent Dominican friars in Santo Domingo, especially Antonio de Montesinos and Bartolomé de Las Casas denounced the maltreatment and pressed the crown to act to protect the indigenous populations. SPANISH COLONIAL ERA. Castaño, Victoria Ríos. These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. Depending on the conditions in a jurisdiction, the position of factor/veedor was often eliminated, as well. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada was the leading conquistador with his brother Hernán second in command. In the twentieth century, Garatuza's life was the subject of a 1935 film and a 1986 telenovela, Martín Garatuza. During the early era and under the Habsburgs, the crown established a regional layer of colonial jurisdiction in the institution of Corregimiento, which was between the Audiencia and town councils. Year that Mission Corpus Christi de la Ysleta was established. The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. The individual leaders of expeditions assumed the expenses of the venture and in return received as reward the grant from the government of the conquered territories; and in addition, they received instructions about treating the indigenous peoples. As what the world knows, Philippines is the only Catholic country in Southeast Asia; thus, most of our structures all over the archipelago were Catholic Churches due to the influence of Catholicism. Although there were restrictions of appointees' ties to local elite society and participation in the local economy, they acquired dispensations from the cash-strapped crown. The near accidental discovery of an almost unknown continent by a Genoese merchant-explorer in the later years of the 1400s led to the greatest colonial migration and cultural exchange ever known. In 1809 the first declarations of independence from Spanish rule occurred in the Viceroyalty of Peru.